Historical Developments, Influences of International Actors, and Education Reforms in India

Tukdeo, Shivali (2022) Historical Developments, Influences of International Actors, and Education Reforms in India. In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. OUP.

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Abstract: The entry and prominence of international institutions in education have been striking features of policy development in the last few decades. A particular area of interest is India’s education system since independence, particularly in the context of the recent policy ideas steered by international actors. Once a strong marker of the British colonial legacy, formal education in India acquired different meanings post independence. The significance of education has been understood as an essential part of social transformation, a resource for mobility, and an instrument of empowerment. As the inherited system was domesticated, the following challenges emerged: equitable access, relevance of formal learning, and a fashioning of Indian national identity. Through a network of institutions, the enterprise of postcolonial public education was shaped in the mid-20th century and was deeply entrenched in the politics of class, caste, and gender. Mass education and schemes to enable access on the one hand, and the development of highly selective, technology-focused institutions on the other, became the route through which an extremely uneven landscape of education was established. A weakened public education system, growing private institutions, and the overall economic turn toward liberalization marked the Indian educational politics of the 1990s. Diverse international institutions, multilateral institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and national governments came together during the World Education Conference of 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand. For the developing world the policy process became globalized after the conference, and it expanded to include multiple actors and partnerships. Thriving since then, globalized education policy has become a space of solutions and authority. Given these changes at large, it is important to understand the politics of policy production, actual policy ideas, and how they acquire legitimacy.
Item Type: Book Chapter
Keywords: international actors, new education policy, India, liberalisation, globalisation, policy influences, development, decentralisation
Subjects: School of Social Sciences > Education
Programmes > Education Programme
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2022 11:42
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2022 16:37
Official URL: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefo...
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    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.426
    URI: http://eprints.nias.res.in/id/eprint/2239

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