Pesticide Use in Indian Cardamom Hills: Factors, Patterns and Intensity

Murugan, Muthusamy and Shetty, PK and George, Thomas and Ravi, R and Subbiah, A and Vijayakumar, K (2014) Pesticide Use in Indian Cardamom Hills: Factors, Patterns and Intensity. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, 5 (3). pp. 65-80.

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Abstract: Surveys and analyses among cardamom and tea planters were carried out in and around cardamom hill reserves during 2009-2012 to quantify the annual pesticide consumption of cardamom and tea. The survey revealed that cardamom had consumed 26.59 kg a.i ha-1 in comparison with tea (8.70kg a.i ha-1). Pesticide intensity of cardamom (0.0322 kg kg-1) was higher than tea (0.0046 kg kg-1). Risk weighed active ingredients values were 3.326 and 0.029 kg ha-1 for cardamom and tea respectively. The pesticide use intensity in major cardamom growing areas of the CHR has experienced significant increase from 2002 and 2003. It was 7.10 kg a.i ha-1 in the year 2002 and decreased slightly to 5.42 kg a.i ha-1 for the year 2003. The number of pesticide sprays has been increased during the last two years (2011-2012). Pesticide residues in soils of all three cardamom growing hot spots were high. Hospital data of these cardamom hot spot regions showed higher levels of pesticide poisonings particularly for organophosphorous compounds. Therefore, the analysis and results reported here on pesticide consumption by cardamom and tea must be taken seriously to safeguard the degraded rainforest cardamom agroforestry system.
Item Type: Journal Paper
Additional Information: Copyright belongs to Publisher
Subjects: School of Natural and Engineering Sciences > Environment
Doctoral Programme > PhD Scholar Publications
Programmes > Agroecology and Biosecurity
Divisions: Schools > Natural Sciences and Engineering
Date Deposited: 21 Sep 2015 11:56
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2021 12:23
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    Funders: UNSPECIFIED
    Projects: UNSPECIFIED
    DOI: 10.4018/ijsesd.2014070106

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